About airfocus

Try for free

Product Process Matrix


Product-process matrix definition

The product-process matrix (PPM) is a visual tool designed to help product teams understand the association between the steps involved in their product development process and the product itself.

Product leaders can leverage the PPM to help product teams and others learn more about a project product-process lifecycle. They may also use the PPM to give stakeholders a better understanding of the lifecycle.

The PPM also allows product leaders and management teams to pinpoint their organization’s key assets, specifically identifying factors that offer an advantage over competing companies. They can use the PPM to make more informed, considered decisions regarding product planning, investments, seizing improvement opportunities, and more. 

Robert H. Hayes and Steven C. Wheelwright discussed the product-process matrix in their innovative Harvard Business Review articles in 1979: “Link Manufacturing Process and Product Life Cycles” and “The Dynamics of Process-Product Life Cycles.” They explored common issues in market manufacturing processes and highlighted strategies to estimate product progress and analyze processes involved in bringing goods to market in the most efficient, effective way. 

What are the Product-Process Matrix Stages?

The product-process matrix has four process stages:

  • Job Shop (Jumbled Flow)

  • Batch (Disconnected Line Flow)

  • Assembly Line (Connected Line Flow)

  • Continuous Flow (Continuous)

Building a product-process matrix can be complex. It typically requires leaders and managers to work closely with teams to define the most efficient processes. Overlooking or undervaluing a key step in a production process could create disruptions down the line.

The Product-Process Matrix and Examples

Let’s take a closer look at each stage :

Job Shop

Organizations falling into the Job Shop/Jumbled Flow process tend to manufacture a range of products in low volume, possibly in a reactive manner. Job Shop products are often unique: a business may specialize in creating customized items based on strict specifications (e.g. replacing a component for an old machine that is no longer produced but pivotal to a business’s operations). 


Companies using batch processes specialize in higher-volume products than those in the Job Shop stage, such as printing or food-production firms. Finding an ideal manufacturing strategy allows batch companies to continually and repeatedly produce goods in a cost-effective, sustainable way. The production process is typically smoother than in Job Shop/Jumbled Line companies but is still somewhat disconnected.

Assembly Line

Organizations producing goods in high demand rely on an assembly-line approach, such as automobile companies. Processes involve a combination of manual workers and automation technologies. The production process is standardized and different operations follow the same route. However, continuous production can be incredibly expensive so demand needs to be high enough to justify the costs. 

Continuous Flow

Specialized machinery is required to facilitate continuous-flow production processes. Organizations that fit into this product-process stage manufacture a high volume of goods and take advantage of high standardization. Continuous Flow companies produce essential goods that are constantly required on the market, such as paper or always-in-demand food products.


Agile: Best Practices and Methodologies

Read now
CTA eBook image background
airfocus eBook Agile: Best Practices and Methodologies

What Is a Product Process Matrix

General FAQ

How does the product process matrix affect operations management?
Because operations management relates to designing, managing, and improving production processes to maximize efficiency, the product-process matrix helps managers find the best approach for their organization. Producing goods to suit current demand and available resources can help businesses maintain the most cost-effective operations.
airfocus eBook Agile: Best Practices and Methodologies
Agile: Best Practices and Methodologies
Read now

Experience the new
way of doing product

Try for free

Book a demo

airfocus modular platform
Top rated
on major review platforms
g2 badge users love us
g2 badge momentum leader
GetApp badge category leader
software advice badge
capterra shortlist badge
proddy badge roadmapping
crozdesk badge
All rights reserved.